These are the pros and cons for hand-washing vs. using alcohol to clean your hands

We all know that hand-washing is healthier and more effective for removing germs from your hands. However, if you’re in a hurry or using alcohol might be the best way to get something done right away then it’s what you’ll have to do. Let’s take a look at some of the pros and cons for these two methods so you can make an educated decision when it comes time!

Benefits of hand-washing: it’s the only way to remove microorganisms from your hands. It prevents infections and other illnesses that can be transmitted through contact with germs on your skin. You’ll be killing viruses, bacteria and fungus when you wash your hands regularly so don’t shy away from this method if you have a clean sink and some hot water!

Alcohol has some benefits as well: it dries quickly so you can get back to work, it’s easy to find and comes in a variety of forms, and it doesn’t require any running water or rinsing. However, alcohol is not effective at removing all types of germs from your hands- it’s best for killing bacteria.

In the end, hand-washing is still your best bet when it comes to being completely rid of germs and protecting yourself from illness. But if you’re in a hurry or don’t have access to water, using alcohol is better than not washing your hands at all!

Bonus: Here are five easy ways to remember how to hand-wash properly!

  1. Turn on the faucet and use soap or sanitizer if you have it. Soap is usually better because its antibacterial properties will remove more microorganisms than alcohol can even though they are both effective in killing bacteria.
  2. Rub your hands together vigorously for at least 20 seconds. This will loosen the germs and remove them from your skin so they can be rinsed away.
  3. Make sure you rub all areas of your hands, especially between fingers where dirt often collects! Be thorough when washing because this is one of the best ways to keep yourself germ-free.
  4. Rinse under warm water for at least 20 seconds. Make sure to get all the soap off your hands so you’re not left with any residue.
  5. Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them. If you use a towel, make sure it’s not damp and that you don’t reuse it after drying your hands- this will just put germs back on them.

Is Burning Wood To Heat Your Home Bad For The Environment?

With the arrival of winter, you might be thinking of ways of heating your home and among the other alternatives, you might want to heat your home with wood. But before you move ahead with this option, you will need to find out is burning wood to heat your home bad for the environment. This is especially important for you to find out because when you burn wood, it causes a lot of changes in the environment and you will need to determine whether it is positive or negative changes.

The burning of wood is known to be dangerous for the environment because it releases a large amount of carbon dioxide that might cause air pollution in the home. Moreover, wood-burning causes a more negative impact as compared to the burning of coal, oil, and gas. Even though wood is more affordable than the other kind of fuel, it has been a popular option among homeowners who are looking for a cheaper alternative. But if you are looking for an ecological and sustainable way of heating your home, you should avoid using wood as it can cause a serious adverse impact on the environment. Additionally, burning wood can also lead to carbon monoxide poisoning as it is very toxic and harmful to human inhalation.

Moreover, it can also lead to the accumulation of fine particles, soot, smog-causing nitrogen oxide, and other gases and chemicals that can cause serious health concerns. This is especially very harmful to pregnant women, children, aged people, and individuals with breathing difficulties. Therefore, an excellent alternative to the burning of wood, it is the addition of an electric fireplace that comes with a nice feature that will benefit you immensely. The use of the faux fireplace is the best way of heating your home without any side effects because it will not cause any kind of air issues or environmental impact. Additionally, wood is known to cause air pollution while impacting the health of people living in the home adversely. This is the reason why you should avoid burning wood because it produces an unhealthy amount of smoke and smog into the living spaces.

The toxic chemicals and gases that are formed from the combustion of wood can also cause serious issues for people with respiratory issues and therefore, you should keep this in mind before moving ahead with this option. There are other side effects of burning wood which include runny nose, burning eyes, and illnesses like bronchitis that will eventually cause more serious health complications. It can make asthma worse while triggering asthma attacks that are caused due to the fine particles that come from the wood-burning process.

The environmentally friendly option is to make use of a faux fireplace with a nice feature that will heat your home quickly and efficiently so that you will get the benefits over a period of time. It will make use of clean energy sources so that it will not have a detrimental impact on the environment so that you will not have to worry when you are using a fireplace for the heating of your home in winter.

Air Pressure Revisited: How Compressors Work

One of the machines that is useful to have in your home is the air compressor. It is a machine that is versatile and can be utilized in many ways. First and foremost is to power up your power tools such as drills, nail guns, spray guns, and other power tools that you will see in hardware stores. It is also useful for other home needs such as inflating the tire of your car, balls, and floats used in pools. There are also times that it can be used as blowers for dust in small computer components for example, and then some other cleaning tools for stones and bricks. 

Air compressors are not only used at homes. They can also be seen at gasoline stations. They are also well known for industrial uses. Factories use them for driving their machinery and tools. 

In addition to that, it is an efficient machine. Why? This machine uses an electric motor or gas engine to power a device. It sucks successive volumes of air from the atmosphere and compresses each volume of air in a confined space to increase its pressure by making the volume smaller. Remember your ideal gas law. It transfers the then high-pressure air to a receiver tank. This device uses the energy from combustion (gas enginers) or electric potential (electric motors) to compress air and store potential energy in the form of pressurized air.

There are three types of air compressor, and they are

  1. Reciprocating compressor – These types of compressors use a piston seated in a cylinder to squeeze the air. They increase the air pressure as the piston enters the cylinder, thereby reducing its volume. 
  2. Rotary Screw compressor – These types of compressors use a rotating spiral screw to gradually reduce the volume of the air and subsequently increase its pressure. It consists of dual rotating components enclosed within a confined volume that essentially pressure the air as they move. As a result, this design does not require valves. This design is oil cooled, and the oil also serves to seal the internals as well. This type of compressor is easy to use and easy to fix when thigns go wrong. Other advantages are a steady stream of air that is unlikely to dampen. Also, the design allows for a small overall product that puts out a ton of air and lasts for ages.
  3. Centrifugal compressor – The last type of compressor uses an impeller to essentially spin the air into a small, confined space to force it to compress. These are mostly designed for applications where a large volume of compressed air is called for.

What are the factors that make air compressors work and why is it important to know about them? The first factor the amount of power which is measured by the horsepower. The ones with larger horsepower are usually arranged for industrial use. The other is the rate delivering the volume of air which is measured by cubic feet per minute or cfm. The surrounding environment of heat, humidity and wind has an impact on it. Because of this, they use the standard cfm to determine cfm in combination with outside pressure and humidity. There is also another rating called displacement cfm. It is the product of cylinder displacement and motor rpm. It determines the efficiency of the compressor pump. These are important factors because they indicate which tools the compressor can drive and support.

Which Types Of Wood Are Best For Furniture?

One of the necessities and must-haves in our homes is furniture. It wouldn’t look like a real home without furniture if you think about it. Because of that, we should be wise about what we choose to bring into our homes. Mostly, you want to be looking at what is the best fit for your taste and personality. Then the next thing would be to ask if each particular piece of furniture will fit your needs? Will it be comfortable? Most of all, will it be worth it?

There are many choices to select from, and they come in different sizes and types. Finding the right fit can definitely be challenging, especially when you are looking for a more budget-friendly option. You may find a piece of furniture that’s relatively cheap but lacks the quality you’re looking for, then you might find something else that is good quality but really pricy and out of your budget. There are some pieces that fall in between though, and a little bit of knowledge about the materials used to make the furniture can go an awful long way.

But for now, let’s talk about wood. It’s what furniture was traditionally made from, and quite a bit furniture today is still made from wood, at least in some capacity. It’s a great material for your furniture because it is tried and tested, lasts long, and often looks great.

One example is the cabinets and cupboards in our kitchens and pantries. When comes to storage, these wooden pieces of furniture always come in handy. Another example is our beds – while the frames are often metal the bed set surrounding it is usually wooden still. Nowadays, there are tons of varieties to choose from, and having a wooden bed is not only a classic style, but also something that is likely to last a lot longer than particle board.

Futons are also in demand right now because they are very useful when you have less space in your home. Then, of course, there are tables. We may be seeing tables that are made from different materials, but nothing beats a good, old-fashioned, and long-lasting wooden table.

There are different kinds of wood used to make furniture though. How can you know which types are the best for the furniture in your home? Here are some examples of types of wood that are great for furniture:

  1. Oak – This is the most commonly used wood for furniture and is known for its strength and attractiveness. It is also relatively inexpensive.
  2. Maple – Another of the less expensive hardwoods that is also aesthetically pleasing. Maple is also ideal for furniture because of its durability.
  3. Cherry – This is a beautiful and popular wood for furniture because of its dark color. It is one of the more expensive hardwoods.
  4. Pine – This is one of least expensive types of wood used for furniture. The problem is that it easily damages because of its softness.
  5. Cedar – This is a soft wood that is more ideal for outdoor furniture because of its natural weather-resistant properties. It also repels insects.
  6. Teak – This is one of the most expensive woods you can find. It is known for being highly weather resistant, so it is often used to make high-quality outdoor furniture.
  7. Walnut – This wood is known for its rich brown color and is often used for fine furniture. It is definitely an expensive wood.
  8. Mahogany – Another expensive wood that is great for fine furniture. It is known for its reddish-brown color.

Take It From A Chemist: Basic Household Knowledge

Chemistry is more than a skillset that you use in a lab for research and scientific purposes. It’s also a way of understanding why the world around you works the way it does. Sure, this is not it’s primary function. Plenty of people go through their entire lives without ever learning any chemistry, and it doesn’t hinder them in the slightest bit. It is however a primary side effect that can be quite beneficial in many ways. Once you start understanding how chemistry works, you can see it in action in almost everything you do.

It’s kind of like knowing a language. Say for example you have spent time learning and understanding Spanish. If you happen to be out in public and someone is having a conversation in Spanish you will likely be able to understand some or all of what they are saying. It’s not essential that you understand them at all, it’s just a fun benefit of having studied the language. Here are some things I’ve noticed in my everyday life that I probably would not have noticed without my background in chemistry.

Understanding Heat Flow

When studying thermodynamics one of the main principals that you learn is that in the presence of heat gradients, heat always flows from high to low. This is not actually limited to heat, but all forms of energy flow whether it is pressure, salt concentration, you name it. But that’s getting away from the point at had a little bit.

As it relates to your home this concept has helped me understand my heating and cooling systems and some of the anomalies that go along with it. Why are home with cathedral ceilings often cold? Well, the heat elements are located in the living area and that is where the heat is produced. As for the ceiling? Its in contact with the outside, so the air up there is closer to the outdoor temperature. Guess what? All of the air from the living room has a tendency to migrate upward and eventually diffuse out. Voila, this is why houses with cathedral ceilings are often a bit chilly.

Be Careful With Your Chemicals

When you’ve spent any time in the lab you will quickly learn that chemicals can behave in odd and often violent ways. It’s really important to know the materials you’re working with and how they may interact. Mixing acid with base for example is sure to cause a violent eruption. You have to be careful out there.

The scary thing is that these interactions aren’t limited to the lab, they can happen right in your house as well. One common one that comes up is with cleaning chemicals – particularly the two most ubiquitous compounds ammonia and bleach. Everyone knows that each of these compounds are invaluable for cleaning purposes – ammonia for glass and similar surfaces and bleach for disinfecting in areas like the bathroom and the kitchen sink.

What may be less known however is that when you mix these two chemicals chlorine gas is silently released. This can be incredibly toxic and even fatal if handled improperly. Never mix these cleaning compounds, and if for some reason they happen to mix make sure to vacate and ventilate the area thoroughly.

Fire Inside Just Isn’t Necessary

I know, I know. I’ll probably catch some flack for this one, mostly because there are so many forms of fire that are used in the household. There are obvious fire hazards associated with flames, but that’s not my main concern. As we learn in the lab you can work with hazards as long as proper safety precautions are taken.

The real concern is with dirty burning flames and the emissions that they can cause. Burning wood in a fireplace for example is an incredibly dirty flame. Not only is it bad for the atmosphere, but some of this smoke backs up into your house and it’s just not something you want to breath on an ongoing basis – especially where there are so many clean burning or non-burning alternatives. A gas fireplace burns very cleanly and an electric fireplace doesn’t burn at all. They look great too, you can check out this guide by BEFR to see what’s out there. Similarly, candles and incense are great for aromatic reasons, but again they put off harmful smoke and smog. You’re better off going with an essential oil diffuser for these purposes.

What ways has your knowledge of chemistry made you think differently about the world around you? This is just a subset of many that I’ve experienced. I’d love to hear your thoughts. Please let me know in the comments!

Cleaning with Chemistry

Did you know that basis household cleaning can often rely on chemistry? It’s what makes the world go round. From doing your dishes to removing stains to vacuuming, it all comes back to fundamental interactions that can all be explained with chemistry. Ready to learn more? In this article we’re going to discuss the different ways chemistry can be used to explain how different cleaning methods work.

Hit It With Acid

So much around the house can be cleaned with white vinegar. Do you know what the main component of white vinegar is? It’ acetic acid. While it does a great job of cleaning surfaces around the house, it’s particularly fantastic for removing stains caused by metal deposits. Where would you see this most often? Generally speaking, they show up as rust stains around your faucets and fixtures.

If you see an orange buildup that you suspect to be caused by rust, you might notice that soap and water simply won’t do the trick. By using vinegar however, you are putting the metal deposits in an acidic environment which strips the metal of oxygen. With oxygen removed, the metal deposits once again become polarized and are much more happy to dissolve in water. Metal in an oxides state is next to insoluble, which is why it can only be removed by scraping, or by employing chemistry as we just discussed here.

Crank Up The Base

On the flip side of the pH spectrum, basic compounds are used all over the household. From ammonia, to bleach, soap, and Drain-O there are so many places where basic compounds come into play as cleaners. What do basic compounds work on? Grease. Why does it work? Well, similarly to how acid works on removing metal stains base works on removing grease stains. When grease is in an acidic in environment it becomes completely hydrogenated and subsequently non-polar. This means that it will resist water indefinitely. You could use a non-polar solvent such as mineral oil to remove these grease buildups, but you’ll always be left with an oily residue.

By raising the pH using something basic, you’ll strip the grease molecules of their protons giving them a polar functional group. Grease compounds are very unlikely to ever become soluble, but with polar functional groups they will be able to emulsify. Soap molecules will then form micelles around them, at which point they can easily be rinsed away. Side note – ever noticed how it’s easier to clean grease with hot water rather than cold? This is because you’re affecting the viscosity of the grease. More heat makes for less viscosity, and subsequently makes for easier rinsing.

Playing With Pressure

Chemistry isn’t just related chemical compounds, there are also the physical behaviors that can be manipulated to get the desired effect. One such phenomenon is pressure, which can also be used on both sides of the spectrum to clean around the house.

First and foremost is the vacuum. By using a high powered fan to create a void, you create a pressure gradient that causes air to come whipping into the chamber, taking dust and dirt particles with it. Want a stronger vacuum? Take a look at the ideal gas law:


You can either increase the power for the fan to lower the pressure, or you can decrease the volume of the vacuum chamber for the fan size you’re using. The problem with the former is that it will require more energy to run, and the problem with the latter is that you will have less time to clean before you have to empty out the vacuum chamber.

Let’s take a look at the flip side – using an abundance of pressure to clean. This is perhaps most properly visualized by looking at a pressure washer. Pressure washer’s take feed water and pump it through a small orifice, which results in a huge increase in the pressure leaving the orifice. This is like the effect of a syringe. The resulting pressure that comes out of the nozzle of a pressure washer is so much higher than that supplied by a garden hose that the water is able to bombard surfaces with a much higher force, and subsequently remove a lot more dirt and grime. This is the main principle behind how pressure washers work, such as those found here: .

Chemistry is all around us, and it can be fascinated to dig into the simple things to see how it is rooted in nature. Do you have any explanations of household cleaning phenomenons that you’d like to share? Let me know in the comments, I’d love to hear what you have to say!

Making Noises: How Guitar Strings Produce Sound

Imagine a world full of waves vibrating around you, all of them different sizes, shapes, and colors. Now close your eyes and focus on the sounds that you can hear. You can probably hear something mechanical, like an air conditioner, or your own breathing. Maybe you hear music, children laughing, cars driving past, or sirens in the distance. The world you imagined is around you already; it is the world of sound. Now let’s look at how this world is created.

All sound is made by movement. Rapid movement back and forth causes air to be pushed away. As the object moves back, the air does not fill in the space it was pushed from and a small vacuum is created, making a wave shape. These waves are sound.

If you take a rubber band and stretch it over your fingers, you can test the way that sound changes. Plucking a loose rubber band will produce a lower sound, while a rubber band that has been stretched tight will make a higher sound. Guitar strings work this way. The looser and thicker the string, the slower it can vibrate. These slow vibrations make the low sounds like a bass guitar. A tighter, thinner string cannot move has far as it vibrates. Its vibrations are tight and fast. This makes higher notes. On a guitar, the length of the strings can be changed by the player’s fingers. A shorter string vibrates more quickly than a longer one, causing a higher sound.

Since sound waves are literally caused by compressed air, it is easy for loud noises, the really strong waves, to damage hearing because of the increased pressure. In fact, sound waves can also be called pressure waves.

People who go to concerts might notice a pressurized feeling in their heads if they pay attention. How does the sound get that loud? An electric guitar by itself, not hooked up to speakers, is pretty soft. Now we are talking resonance and amplification.

An acoustic guitar is bulkier, right? It has a hole right under the strings where they are plucked. The air inside the acoustic guitar captures the sound and the wood at the back reflects the waves back stronger. This use of empty space and a sound reflector is called resonance. The sinuses in the human head do the same thing. The empty sinus space and the bones of the skull resonate our voices to make them louder.

The design that is common in most electric guitars is that of a solid body: no extra space. That is why an electric guitar sounds soft all on its own; it has no resonance. That is where the speakers come in to play. The vibrations of the strings on an electric guitar are picked up in the solid body of the guitar and passed electrically to speakers. These speakers mimic the guitar’s sound waves while making the waves bigger and stronger and, therefore, louder. The increase of the strength of a sound wave is called amplification.

Vocal chords vibrate like guitar strings. Clapping hands together creates a single sound wave. Go explore the world of sound!

How Does a Paintball Gun Work, Anyway?

The parts of paintball guns are similar but have some very important differences between them. First, it’s important whether you’re using a pistol, semi-automatic paintball gun and the pump-action gun. All of them work differently but have the same core parts that make them paintball guns. Some can be pump action paint ball guns. The CO2 cartridge will often be loaded into the bottom tube, right below the barrel. In hand paintball guns, your paint balls are loaded into the top tube. The middle tube are where the shots are fired. Pumping the gun will load one round at a time.

The other pump action paintball gun will require a CO2 cartridge or a compressed air cartridge. The people competing have to be responsible enough to carry a paintball tube. That tube is going to be your main source for ammunition. Your paintball rounds go into a holder called a hopper. This item makes it immediately clear that it’s a paintball gun. It’s the most immediate sign to tell people that the weapon isn’t lethal to other competitors.

Hoppers have numbers on them to let people know have many rounds can be held. However, some times this can vary depending on the shape of the rounds that you have. They will drop into the chamber of the gun. Pump action guns are loaded into the barrel itself and then requires to be pumped after every shot. It’s important to see how little recoil that the paintball guns have. Some of that can be explained because they use CO2 cartridges to propel the rounds. The rounds themselves also tend to be lighter and easier to control.

Semi-automatic guns are more convenient than the other choices. There are options for either electric or mechanical paintball guns. They are the most basic paintball gun and almost everyone can have an enjoyable experience with them. Every time you pull the trigger a round will be fired. That is different from the pump action guns that require you to have pump each round. That makes sure that the concept doesn’t require much explanation to everyone. That also means that the semi-automatic gun can hold more rounds than the pump action gun. That makes sure that newcomers are punished as hard for their lack of gun knowledge.

Paintball guns can be enjoyed by people that don’t enjoy real guns. They also have a far less chance of injuring someone who is less experienced with a guns. Chest soreness or literally being hit with recoil due to inexperience is relatively nonexistent when it comes to paintball guns.

What’s The Chemistry behind Wood Burning?

Any chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen ignites together and becomes fire. For example, wood and gasoline. However, these two products don’t produce flame on its own because both are surrounded by oxygen. To have a good combustion, it needs high levels of fuel to generate heat and makes one set of fire.


Keep in mind that heat comes from different sorts of things. Wood burning can produce heat from friction, lightning, match, focused light or something that’s been burning. If the wood is heated over 300 degrees Fahrenheit, this starts to decompose heat and those types of materials that are made out of cellulose.

There are some materials released that are made out of volatile gases, and it is called as smoke. The production of smoke is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Moreover, its other materials are formed into as “char” that is nearly of ash or pure carbon. The wood does also contain materials that can’t be burned such as potassium and calcium. The “char” is known as charcoal which is also made of wood that’s been heated and removed nearly forming into volatile gases thus it leaves behind so much carbon. This is why you see charcoal fire doesn’t produce so much smoke.

Wood burning happens in two different reactions.


1. The volatile gases are too hot which is about 500 degrees Fahrenheit. The compound molecules are broken apart, and then the atoms are recombined to the oxygen to form products such as water and carbon dioxide. Meaning to say, it burns.

2. The char do also combine with oxygen but in a much slower type of reaction. This is why most of the charcoal during barbecue time can stay hot for a longer period.

Side effect


During a chemical reaction, there is a lot of heat which leads to the production of fire. Many fuels usually burn in just one step. For example, is the use of gasoline. As the heat vaporizes, this is the time that it burns as a volatile gas. Over the time, humans can produce and control fire.

Fire reacting to properties likes the ignitability, flame spread and heat release is the most relevant factor that could ever happen for the wood to perform fire. Charring can influence the characteristics of the property especially if the layers are protected.

Bottom line

To make a good production of wood burning, it needs enough to the higher temperature of heat for the wood to start burning. What it also depends on the way heat is produced. If the thermal properties are too damp or too low, the probability of heat is fifty-fifty. So, ensure that the materials are made of suitable materials to produce heat. This will surely come in handy in days where you might be out camping, and wood burning is all you need to keep you warm and able to cook your food.